Paperboard Summary

Abrasion

Classification
  • A major defect if pronounced (A penetration deeper than the outer layer).
  • A minor defect if slight (A penetration only the outer layer).
Identification

This is a scratch through any of the layers of the package.

Causes

The packages were manually scraped on the aseptic processing/transportation equipments, or other packages.

Corner Dent

Classification
  • A minor defect.
Identification

This is the dimpling or wrinkling of the corner.

Causes
  1. The settings for the final folder where the top and bottom flaps are folded in and sealed to the pacakge were not correct.
  2. The packages were abused during on-line or post-process handling.

Crushed

Classification
  • A major defect if affecting the seal area.
  • A minor defect if not affecting the seal area.
Identification

This is the alteration of the package original dimensions by force. This is a defect that may lead to the corner leaker.

Causes

The packages were abused during on-line or post-process handling.

Cut (Fracture)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

This defect is a mechanical slash or slicing that penetrates the package, causing a loss of hermatic integrity.

Causes
  1. The package has contacted sharp edges of other packages.
  2. The package has contacted burrs or sharp corners on equipment.
  3. The packages were abused during on-line or post-process handling.

Leaker (Channel)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

This is a path of non-bonding across the width of the seal that will generally leak.

Causes
  1. The settings for longitudinal sealing or transversal sealing jaws were not correct (i.e., the temperature, pressure and/or dwell time).
  2. Contaminants were present in the seal area during seal formation.

Leaker (Corner)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

This is a leak occurring in one of the corners of the package.

Causes

The corner of the package was crushed and abused during on-line or post-process handling.

Leaker (Perforation)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

This is a leakage through or around perforated area.

Causes

The packages were flexed and stressed during processing and/or handling.

Leaker (Pulltab)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

This is a leakage through or around pulltab.

Causes
  1. The sealing bar settings were not correct (i.e. the temperature, pressure and/or dwell time).
  2. Contaminants were present in the seal area during seal formation.
  3. The packages were flexed and stressed during sealing, processing and/or handling.

Leaker (Seal)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

This is a path of non-bonding across the width of the seal that will generally leak.

Causes
  1. The settings for longitudinal sealing or transversal sealing jaws were not correct (i.e., the temperature, pressure and/or dwell time).
  2. Hard lumps of molten plastic squeezed out during sealing may puncture the package from inside along the seal during post-process handling.
  3. Contaminants were present in the seal area during seal formation.

Loose Flap or Ear

Classification
  • A minor defect.
Identification

Flap or ear was not attached as intended.

Causes
  1. The settings for the final folder where the top and bottom flaps are folded in and sealed to the pacakge were not correct.
  2. The packages were abused during on-line or post-process handling.

Puncture (Pinhole)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

This defect is a mechanical piercing that penetrates the package, causing a loss of hermetic integrity.

Causes
  1. The package has contacted burrs or sharp objects on equipment.
  2. The packages were abused during on-line or post-process handling.

Seal Defects (Blocked)

Classification
  • A major defect
Identification

This is the transversal seal area where the seal is weaker than the packaging material. This is a defect that may lead to the seal leaker or channel leaker.

Causes

The sealing jaw settings were not correct (i.e. insufficient temperature, pressure and/or dwell time).

Seal Defects (Misaligned/Deformed)

Classification
  • Is considered a major defect when the seal width is reduced to less than 3 mm (3/32-inch).
  • Is considered a a minor defect when the seal width has 3 mm (3/32-inch) of bonded seal present.
Identification

This is a seal that is not formed in a continuous, straight line.

Causes
  1. Sealing edges of the packaging material were misaligned during the longitudinal sealing operation.
  2. The transversal sealing jaws were misaligned.
  3. The package was not placed properly within the sealing jaws during transversal sealing operation.

Seal Defects (Plastic Lumps)

Classification
  • A major defect
Identification

This defect is the presence of hard lumps of molten plastic squeezed out during sealing. This may lead to a seal leaker.

Causes

The transversal sealing jaw settings were not correct (i.e. excessive temperature, pressure and/or dwell time).

Swell (Swollen Package)

Classification
  • A critical defect.
Identification

The package bulges due to gas formation from bacterial contamination, or excess internal residual air.

Causes
  1. The food was underprocessed or contaminated during aseptic processing.
  2. The package material was not properly sterilized or was contaminated during aseptic processing.
  3. The package was overfilled or a proper vacuum was not drawn.
  4. The package leaked after processing. 5.The post-process handling was too rough.